Ethiopian Emperors Family Tree (Solomonic Dynasty)
Commercial Law and F. Civil Procedure Module Revised. Revised module on criminal law. Revised module on tort. Revised succession module. Revised module on the justice system and the role of justice organs. Service Delivery Training Manual. The role of prosecutor in criminal investigation. Training material on sentencing guideline. Trial and pre-trial management.
Trial and pre-trial. Abresh i need to thank you. Dear Mr. Abraham i am second year law student in mekelle universtiy and i am here to seek ur help: i have been searching dejene fikadu hand book on ethiopian criminal law every where in town and i just tired and i belive u could have it at least on pdf format so please sir just do your best to do this favor for me!
Attach on my email adress. And also anyone who can read this comment can help me. Mr Abreham …really i have no words to either to comment or to thank you the blessed work you are doing…. M research with no less than to my advisor. So keep on posting such relevant and indispensable materials Indeed, you are really practicing and living in this digital age.
Doing all these marvelous and invaluable activities by individual capacity is amazing. Please how can i help you???? Would you please post the revised version? It is so great to see the progress you people made there.
Definitely this will help to excel the justice system in our country. May God bless your work. Fekadu Daba. Abreham, I really appreciate your works in making different legal sources available for the public. I would like to thank the chilot. It is a best website 4 me which teach society,specially law students. Really I appreciate your effort.
It becomes more important especially for academicians if you could add the English version of the documents.It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest.
With over million inhabitants as of [update]  Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent. Its capital and largest city is Addis Ababawhich lies a few miles west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the Nubian and Somali tectonic plates. Some of the oldest skeletal evidence for anatomically modern humans has been found in Ethiopia.
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Oral literature tells that the monarchy was founded by the Solomonic dynasty of the Queen of Shebaunder its first king, Menelik I. During the late—19th-century Scramble for AfricaEthiopia and Liberia were the only two nations that preserved their sovereignty from long-term colonisation by a European colonial powerand many newly-independent nations on the continent subsequently adopted its flag colours. During the Italian rule, the government abolished slaverya practice that existed in the country for centuries, and urbanization steadily increased.
Inthe Derg established the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopiabut it was overthrown in by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Frontwhich has been the ruling political coalition since. Ethiopia and Eritrea use the ancient Ge'ez scriptwhich is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. A majority of the population adheres to Christianity mainly the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and P'ent'ayand the historical Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first states to officially adopt the religion, whereas around a third follows Islam primarily Sunni.
A substantial population of Ethiopian Jewsknown as Bete Israelalso resided in Ethiopia until the s. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities. Oromo is the most populous language by native speakers, while Amharic is the most populous by number of total speakers and serves as the working language in the federal government.
The nation is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, its forests and its numerous rivers, and the world's hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are the largest continuous mountain ranges in Africa, and the Sof Omar Caves contains the largest cave on the continent.
In the s and s, Ethiopia experienced civil conflicts and communist purgeswhich hindered its economy. The country has since recovered and as of [update] has the largest economy by GDP in East Africahaving the largest population in the region. According to the Perseus Digital Library, the designation properly translates as Burnt-face in noun form and red-brown in adjectival form.
In Greco - Roman epigraphs, Aethiopia was a specific toponym for ancient Nubia. The ancient Hebrew texts identify Nubia instead as Kush. Following the Hellenic and Biblical traditions, the Monumentum Adulitanuma third century inscription belonging to the Aksumite Empireindicates that Aksum's then ruler governed an area which was flanked to the west by the territory of Ethiopia and Sasu. The Aksumite King Ezana would eventually conquer Nubia the following century, and the Aksumites thereafter appropriated the designation "Ethiopians" for their own kingdom.It was throughout much of its existence surrounded by hostile forces in the African Horn however it managed to preserve and develop its ancient form of Christianity based kingdom.
Founded in by the Amhara nobleman Yekuno Amlak, who claimed to descend from the last Aksumite king and ultimately the Biblical Menelik I and the Queen of Shebait replaced the Agaw kingdom of the Zagwe.
While initially a rather small and politically unstable entity, the Empire managed to expand significantly under the crusades of Amda Seyon I — and Yeshaq I —temporarily becoming the dominant force of the African Horn. In the north, in what is now Eritrea, Ethiopia managed to repulse Ottoman invasion attempts, although losing its access to the Red Sea to them. Reacting to these challenges, Ethiopia started to expand westwards, conquering the Lake Tana area and much of Beta Israel territory in Begemder.
In the s Emperor Fasilides founded the new capital of Gondarmarking the start for a new golden age known as "Gondarine period". It saw a relative peace, the successful integration of the Oromo and a flourishing of culture.
With the deaths of Emperor Iyasu II and especially Iyoas I the realm eventually entered a period of decentralization, known as "Era of the Princes". The Shewa region factually seceded and constituted a kingdom of its own, while within the Empire, regional warlords contested for power, with the Emperor being barely more than a mere puppet.
Emperor Tewodros II r. His successor Yohannes IV engaged primarily in war and successfully fought the Egyptians and the Mahdists before dying against the latter in the Battle of Gallabat in Emperor Menelik IInow residing in the recently founded town of Addis Abebacontinued and concluded the policy of expansion of his predecessor, subjugating many people and kingdoms in what is now western, southern and eastern Ethiopia, like KaffaWolaytta or Aussa.
Thus, he gave Ethiopia the geographical extent it has today. In the north he was confronted with an expanding Italy.
Decisively defeating it at the Battle of Adwa in with the aid of Russia and France, Menelik ensured Ethiopia's independence and confined Italy to Eritrea. The country was one of the founding members of the United Nationsand in annexed Eritrea. ByEthiopia was one of only three countries in the world to have the title of Emperor for its head of state, together with Japan and Iran under the Pahlavi dynasty. It was the second-to-last country in Africa to use the title of Emperor; the only one later was the Central African Empirewhich was implemented between and by Emperor Bokassa I.
Ethiopia's human occupation began early, as evidenced by the findings [ which? It was thus one of the first Christian states.
The dynasty would last until its overthrow by a new regime claiming descent from the old Aksumite kings. Unholy alliance between Muslim and Christian states had occurred in this period. In the deposed Sultan of Shewa Dil Marrah successfully appealed to Yekuno Amlak to restore his rule, however the Sultanate wouldnt last much longer after its renegade province Ifat would eventually invade it and create the Ifat Sultanate. In the 14th century Emperor Amda Seyon would invade Ifat and essentially dismantle it as a regional power.
The Adal occupation lasted fourteen years. During the conflict, the Adal Sultanate employed cannons provided by the Ottoman Empire. In the aftermath of the war, Adal annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with territories in what is now Somalia. Inwith the help of the Portuguese Empirethe Solomonic dynasty was restored.The Christians retreated into what may be called Abyssinia, an easily defensible, socially cohesive unit that included mostly Christian, Semitic-speaking peoples in a territory comprising most of EritreaTigray, and Gonder and parts of Gojam, Shewa, and Welo.
A complex caravan network linked Mitsiwa now MassawaEritrea on the Red Sea coast with the highlands of the interior. Demand for Ethiopian products increased considerably during the last quarter of the 17th century, as Yemen, a major trading partner on the Arabian Peninsulasought increasing amounts of coffee for transshipment to Europe.
The economy of the Red Sea region had been stimulated by the opening of the Suez Canalby the establishment of a British base in Adenand by the opening of a French coaling station at Obock on the Afar coast. Thus, afterItaly occupied coastal positions in Ethiopia and in southern Somalia. This limited the French to their mini-colony, leaving the British in control of ports in northern Somalia from which foodstuffs were exported to Aden.
Since neither France nor Russia accepted the new protectorate status, Ethiopia continued to acquire modern weapons from these countries through Obock. When, by —95, Italy not only refused to rescind its declaration but also reinforced its army in Eritrea and invaded eastern Tigray, Menilek mobilized. In late February an Ethiopian army of approximatelymen was encamped at Adwa in Tigray, facing a much smaller enemy force some miles away.
The Italians nevertheless attacked and were defeated on March 1,in what became known to Europeans as the Battle of Adwa.
Menilek immediately withdrew his hungry army southward with 1, prisoner-hostages, leaving Eritrea to Rome in the hope that peace with honour would be restored quickly. On Oct. Most of the newly incorporated peoples there lived in segmented societies, practiced animal husbandry or cultivation with digging stick or hoe, followed traditional religions or Islamand spoke non-Semitic languages.
In practically every way but skin colour, the northerners were aliens. Their superior weapons and more complex social organization gave them a material advantage, but they also were inspired by the idea that they were regaining lands that had once been part of the Christian state.
About the first of these problems erupted in Somali-inhabited regions, under the leadership of Sayyid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan. The rebellion was directed at the British, Italians, and Ethiopians, whom Maxamed regarded equally as oppressors and infidels. Indeed, these powers admitted their collusion by collaborating militarily against the sayyid and his forces from toforcing him to sue for peace and to withdraw into a remote and unadministered area of Italian Somaliland. By he was again on the attack, this time causing a massive civil war, during which tens of thousands of Somali clansmen died.
The Italians and the British chose not to intervene, preferring to let Somali kill Somali, and limited their activities to the coast. It was not until that British air power ran the sayyid to ground, forcing him to flee into the Ogaden, where he died on Dec.
Maxamed pioneered the traditions of modern Somali nationalismwhich combined Islam and anti-imperialism in a movement that sought to transcend clan divisions and make all Somali aware that they shared a common language, religion, way of life, and destiny.
The Somali were further informed about their potential unity by, ironically, their Italian colonizers. Despite the defeat at Adwa, Rome had not abandoned its dream of an Ethiopian empire.
To this end, it worked hard at economic penetration but was invariably frustrated. More successful was its infiltration from Somalia into the adjacent Ogadenwhere colonial troops seized strategic wells and posed as the protectors of Islam and the Somali people.All published decisions of the Cassation bench of the Federal Supreme court cases are included in the website.
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Birth registration and rights of the child. Why Party-Appointed Arbitrators: A reflection. Immediate appeal in Ethiopian Arbitration Law? The Chromalloy syndrome: enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in Ethiopia. Interim measures of protection in international commercial arbitration in Ethiopia. Appeal and arbitration under Ethiopian Arbitration Law. Letters of Credit in General. Regional Market Under Siege.
The Horse and International Commercial Arbitration. Merger: A culprit Behind Uncompetitive markets? Effect of Irregularities in Public Contract Awarding. Liability for defective software. Fair Practice under Copyright Law of Ethiopia.
Status of Millennium Development Goals in Ethiopia. Law as a means of Serving Justice. Locating Culture in the Best Interest of the Child. The Police and Human Rights in Ethiopia.
In Response to the comment given by a Fitsum Yifrashewa. Software Patents: Justifications and Arguments. Active Participation of Children in Hostilities. The Application of other public international laws in WTO dispute settlement. Have you heard about the Budapest Memorandum? Update: When can regulation be used to amend provisions of a proclamation? When can regulation be used to amend provisions of a proclamation? Analyzing the 'Reform' core feature of Ethiopian Civil Code.
Analyzing the 'Simplicity' core feature of Ethiopian Civil Code. Analyzing the 'Systematic' core feature of Ethiopian Civil Code. Analyzing the 'Completeness' core feature of Ethiopian Civil Code. Analyzing the 'Authority' core feature of Ethiopian Civil Code. Legislative proposals and application of human right treaties in Ethiopia. Express repeal of delegated Legislation under Ethiopia.
Modernizing the Legislative and Regulatory Framework of Ethiopia. Burden of Proof in Tax Disputes: Ethiopia. Bank deposit method of proving Tax Evasion: the current litigation heresies.
Why Churches are not taxed. Justification of Excise Tax in General. Political risks in construction industry in Ethiopia: who shall bear such risks? Jurisdiction of Courts or Divisions.Fede ral Laws Year Index. Council of Minister Regulations. Dear Abraham…. In the past years the Ethiopian people were not allowed to red and understand the laws of the land.
Then people were exposed to different crimes unknowingly. Thankyou very much. Hello Abraham, if its not too much of a trouble I was hoping if you could send me the new Transportation allowance proclamation. Thank you very much. I am ,by qualification,an LL M ,however,I have got a great problem with the application of past regime laws as If a government and its constitution are changed, why do the laws of the fallen state and the constitution continue in the new government, such as the civil code, commercial code, civil, and criminal procedures of the time of Haile Selassie I?
Since a government and its constitution are changed, why are the laws of the fallen government and the constitution continued to exist in the new government?
Thank You. Please send me comparative thesis analysis on investmrnt laws of ethiopis with international investment law. Ato Abraham; My very sincere appreciation for the wonderful job providing reference services for the laws.
Hello Abraham, if its not too much of a trouble I was hoping if you could send me the new labor law. What about the new labor proclamation ratified on July 4, How can get food and medicine proclamation please help me at siyumetesfa gmail. Dear Abraham, Sorry to hear that you were hurt in accident. I am happy also that you recovered quickly.
Please would you let me know if the Negarit Gazeta was out pon the current cabinet formation? Best regards, Habte.